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Judicial Affairs

Assault and   battery:   inflicting an   injury   on somebody intentionally or unintentionally.  Any damage on an organ withbleeding and destroying tissues is called injury. In case the damage inflicted does not result in bleeding,   even ifa fracture of a bone results, it is called battery.

Court of appeal: a court consisting of a judge and two counselors, held in the capital of Ostans to reviewcases adjudicated by general or revolutionary courts. By considering substantial evidence, the court attended by ajudge and two counselors will issue the verdict, after getting assured of the votes of majority, which will beeffective and peremptory.

Difficult and hard circumstances imposed on litigants: in  case of difficult  and hard circumstances imposedon  one  of  the  litigants,  in  spite of the first   decree,  the  law  will  give  him  another chance.

General court: a court with general jurisdiction to make arrangements for and proceed with all lawsuits (exceptfor those legally transferred to other courts). Establishment of general courts inany judicial district, as well as determining the local jurisdiction of the courts and the number of branches is up to the Head of Judiciary.

Interlocutory decree on rejection of  petition  by the notary public office:  when  the appellant  or his residential place  is unidentified, the  following the receipt of the petition.petition is rejected by  an  order issued by the manager of the court officeor  his  deputy  within  two  days

Interlocutory decree on rejection of petition and lack of jurisdiction: decree issued when documentaryevidence presented to the court is incomplete, and/or the court lacks jurisdiction to deal with the case.

Judicial Jurisdiction: jurisdiction of Bakhsh, Shahrestan or certain areas of large cities.

Probate cases: cases such as appointing tutor, affairs relating to trustees,absent or missing  persons, bequest, etc. on which law courts are bound  to take  action  whether there are conflicts between persons or lawsuits filed or not.

Qazf: false accusation of unchastity.

Summary   offence:  petty   offences   such     as breaking trees, blocking public ways and the like.